Surface articulation through digital design and fabrication tools

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CNC milling, digital design, digital fabrication, experimental prototyping, patterns, rapid prototyping, research, Rhino Grasshoper

Ongoing research on surface articulation using CNC-milling manufacturing processes. Various fabrication strategies are applied to doubly-curves surface geometries in order to increase efficiency of the production and integrate limitations and constraints of the machines into the very early stage of the design process.


Fabrication method: 3-axis CNC milling, 6mm flat drill

Material: Polyurethane rigid foam: SikaBlock PUR modelling board M450

Research: Agata Kycia

Institution: Weissensee Kunsthochschule Berlin

Year: 2017


Simulation of the tool paths:WeissenseeFräsen-AKycia-44.jpg


Fabrication method: 3-axis CNC milling, 6mm round drill

Material: Polystyrene rigid foam

Institution: Weissensee Kunsthochschule Berlin

Research: Agata Kycia

Year: 2017

The following study explores the relationship between the curvature and geodesic lines on a given surface. Various tests have been made on 15X15 cm doubly-curved tiles.



Fabrication method: 3-axis CNC-milling, 10mm round drill

Material: Polystyrene rigid foam

Institution: IAAC Barcelona

Research: Agata Kycia, Michal Piasecki

Year: 2007

This study explores various patterning strategies applied to a given doubly-curved surface using 3-axis CNC-milling manufacturing technique. The three-dimentional surface articulation is designed through optimization of the drill trajectories and sizes of the drill tools. It aims at optimization of the machine performance, aiming and maximum efficiency of the fabrication process and minimization of the manufacturing time. Given manufacturing technique becomes main design driver and form-defining factor.

In this case we optimize the applied pattern in order to mill the final iteration right after the “rough cut” and skip smooth finishing of the surface – the phase that occupies most time and energy.


Simulation of the fabrication process:


CNC-milling in process: rough-cut und final milling:


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